Monday, February 24, 2020
Introduce a Company into Spain - Essay Example Figure 1: Predicted Mall Distribution Space in Spain The product will be distributed through a long distribution channel whereby several middlemen will link the retailer with producers of different commodities. Although this kind of distribution channel may raise the price that the consumers will pay for the products, it will be essential to use it because the supermarkets will deal with a multiple of products and hence may not get time to deal with all the logistics of individual commodities Ã¢â¬â this role will be left for the suppliers. All in all, the market is concentrated in the hands of few, and it is these domineering stores Coles is expected to compete with, which means that the competition will be quite stiff. The right media will be chosen to ensure the marketing plan is successful. Therefore, the communication channels will be based on their ability to convey the right message to the target audience in the most effective means. Coles will develop communication channels largely through direct mail, television, radio, as well as the internet. These channels will be used to show consumers how they will benefit by shopping from Coles supermarkets. The products that will be sold by Coles will also act as a channel of communication with the consumers. The Supermarket stores will serve as sources of instant information regarding the sales, available products, location of in-store products and methods of getting out-of-stock items. Generally, the supermarket will exploit channels such as addressable media, interactive media, and mass media. Coles will apply pull strategy, which involves the customers dynamically looking for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products while the retailers requesting for goods in response to direct consumer demand. This strategy will require Coles to establish a strong brand in Spain, which will be achieved through mass media promotions among other strategies of similar nature. In this view, when the supermarket identifies a certain prod uct that the consumers require, the management will ensure it is stocked Ã¢â¬â this means that the supermarket will be charged with the responsibility of creating the demand while the supply channels will ensure that this demand is met. Coles will adopt a competition-based pricing strategy, whereby the setting of prices will be based on what the rival supermarket are charging (Cannon and Morgan 19). Business Review Coles supermarkets have operated for more than 90 years in Australia. The company has very rich history of Australia especially because it was founded by the founders of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s retail industry. Coles founder, George Coles, after studying best practices in retailing from the US went back to Australia in 1914 and opened stores in Melbourne, Collingwood and Smith Street. The company opened its first supermarket in 1960 in North Balwyn, Victoria. By 1973, Coles had managed to open stores in all the capital cities of Australia (Armstrong and Kotler 56). BI-LO is a chain of supermarket owned by Wesfarmers, which was previously known as Coles Group. BI-LO changed name to Coles Supermarkets during 2006 and 2007 when they attained 180 chains of stores. Following a poor performance of stores which had been converted
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Analyzing Understanding the War on Terror 3rd Edition - Essay Example It was probably then when the notion of America on war with terrorism took birth. Later on, George W. Bush, US President and other officials of USA having high ranks used this term of War on Terror extensively to show that America is against terrorism and the organisations that use weapons and keep armaments for the purpose of spreading terror. This campaign was started because these terrorist organisations were not only causing threat to USA but they are threatening to other countries as well. Such militant organisations are dangerous for humanity on the whole. The phrase of the war on terror is particularly used against militant Islamic organisations like al-Qaeda. On the other hand, the present President of USA Barack Obama does not use the terminology of war on terror officially as he makes use of the term Overseas Contingency Operation for the same idea as that of war on terror. But the term of the war on terror is still in use and is used by political persons in media and some parts of government also makes use of it e.g. Global War on Terrorism Service Medal. Some people believe that the term of the war on terror was introduced by the US President George W. Bush after the 9/11 terrorists attacks on the twin towers of USA. The term the war of terror is developed to show AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s clash with the people who have Islamic extremist thoughts. This term of the war on terror was selected by George W. Bush when the higher officials of USA wanted to introduce the term "global struggle against violent extremismÃ¢â¬ (Coaty and Babst, pp. 222Ã¢â¬â228). USA had already a strained relationship with Iraq and also with Afghanistan which was led by Taliban. This stress in relationship occurred as a result of Gulf War of 1991 but the situation worsened and the terroristsÃ¢â¬â¢ attacks on the Twin Towers on 9 September 2011 made the US President Bush to take some steps against terrorism. The attack on the Twin Towers is observed as the attack on humanity and not on USA alone. Terrorism is a problem which has threatened not only America but also its allies and other independent countries. Furthermore, after the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers the anthrax-laced letters which were sent to USA took the lives of five American people and it is thought to be the worst biological attack in the history of USA created by Islamist militant extremists, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). As these events occurred together so United States of America had to take an action. The union of happenings forced USA to make amendments in its foreign policy as well as domestic policy. As a consequence, American officials drafted USA Patriot Act and also developed Department of Homeland Security. These steps helped in the renovation of the security measures such as operation involving investigation and intelligence. Along with the alterations made in the domestic and foreign policy the President Bush ordered the Taliban government of Afghani stan to give Osama Bin Laden to the US government. It was suspected that Osama bin Laden was the hand behind these terroristsÃ¢â¬â¢ attacks and it is he who developed the whole plan of terrorism and executed it. Along with Osama bin Laden, US government wanted to capture other members of al-Qaeda which could be a threat for any further act of terrorism. But the government of Taliban did not accept the orders of President Bush which made US President to start operations of war against
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Should Rewards and Punishments Be Used to Motivate StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Learning Essay I believe that rewards and punishments do play a key part in sustaining childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interest and motivation to learn. However, I feel there are other key factors and methods that could be used to greater effect and am inclined to disagree with the question at hand. a) There are many educational theories on the topic of motivation but I believe the Self-Determination and Self-Efficacy theories cover some key aspects that deserve to be mentioned. The Self-Determination theory, in a nutshell, discusses the extent to which people validate their actions upon reflection and engage in them willingly. It assumes that every individual seeks personal development and undertakes challenges to build up their self-esteem (Rochester, 2008). According to Eggen and Kauchak, learners have three Ã¢â¬Ëinnate psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatednessÃ¢â¬â¢. The need for competence suggests that learners have to feel confident in their ability to match up with their peerÃ¢â¬â¢s performances, with determining factors like praise and attributional statements regarding the reasons for their performance. The need for autonomy basically talks about learners wanting to feel in control over their learning environment; this can be achieved by pushing them to be committed to their goals and providing detailed feedback after assessments. Finally, the need for relatedness stems from learners wanting assurance with regards to their relationships with the people around them and feeling deserving of care and respect. Eggen Kauchak, 2007) The Self-Efficacy theory is similar to the Self-Determination theory in certain aspects; basically, it focuses on learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence in their capability to achieve success, which in turn determines how you tackle challenges. (Wagner, 2008) The four factors influencing self-efficacy are past performance, modelling, verbal persuasion and psychological state. Past performances, the most important factor of the four, determine a personÃ¢â¬â¢s initial confidence in handling the task at hand while modelling gives learners a sense of the benchmark expecte d from them, thus giving them greater confidence in their preparations. Verbal persuasion, when used appropriately, can help spur learners on when they are in determining their progress and, eventually, their success. (Eggen Kauchak, 2007) What impact do these two theories have on learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation to learn? To put it simply, both theories believe that by acknowledging their innate needs and boosting their confidence, learners will most likely be more motivated to learn. Learners aged 7-11 are in the concrete operational stage and are Ã¢â¬Ëincreasingly conscious of cognitive capacities and effective strategiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Berk, 1999); this means that they are more aware of what they can do based on their current level of ability as well as what can be done to improve their performance. Hence, it would make sense that we should aim to build up their confidence such that they can truly perform to the best of their capabilities. There are, of course, some concerns about there being over-confidence as a result of being Ã¢â¬Ëoverly-encouragedÃ¢â¬â¢. Also, there is a limit to the effectiveness of verbal persuasion in really motivating students to press on with the task at hand. (Eggen Kauchak, 2007) However, a crucial point to note is that any effort to boost their confidence is to increase their self-belief, to believe that they can succeed if they put in the necessary amount of effort; that way their mindset towards challenges will be a much healthier one. Thus, the Self-determination and Self-Efficacy theories show that rewards and punishments need not be the sole factor in motivating learners. ) The Self-Determination and Self-Efficacy theories discussed earlier were schools of thought belonging to cognitive theories of motivation. The use of rewards and punishments in classrooms is a behavioural view of motivation. It states that learning is a Ã¢â¬Ëchange in behaviour that occurs as a result of experienceÃ¢â¬â¢ and thus, Ã¢â¬Ëan increase in studying or learning behaviours is viewed as evidence of motivationÃ¢â¬â¢. ( Eggen Kauchak, 2007) There is some debate over the effectiveness of using rewards in classrooms and whether it really boosts learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation to learn. On the one hand, some argue that using rewards can lead to a whole host of problems, the first being that rewards give learners the wrong impression about the true meaning of learning and undermines their Ã¢â¬Ëmotivation to be involved in an activity for its own sakeÃ¢â¬â¢, or intrinsic motivation. Others believe that behaviourism alone does not fully account for learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation as they rely on extrinsic motivators, or Ã¢â¬Ëmotivation to engage in an activity as a mean to an endÃ¢â¬â¢, meaning that cognitive factors like learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations are not accounted for. Eggen Kauchak, 2007) According to Berk, Ã¢â¬Ëchildren think in an organized, logical fashion only when dealing with concrete information they can directly perceiveÃ¢â¬â¢ (Berk, 1999); this indicates that using methods based on behaviourism, namely rewards and punishment, will not serve much purpose in helping learners deal with abstract concepts and higher-order skills. Rather, methods base d on cognitive development could be used to greater effect. Also, the presence of so many variables in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s learning environment means that the success of using behaviourism-based strategies is quite beyond our control. All this only serves to affirm that the use of rewards and punishments would not necessarily be effective in motivating learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ learning. On the other hand, PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation of knowledge acquisition shows that behaviourism does indeed aid cognitive development; Piaget himself believed that knowledge is Ã¢â¬Ëconstructed or created gradually, as maturing individuals interact with the environmentÃ¢â¬â¢, or constructivism in simple terms. By rewarding or punishing learners, their physical learning environment is affected, which in turn has an impact on their creating and re-learning of new knowledge. Indeed, by making use of rewards for tasks that learners do not find too intrinsically appealing, like word problems and emphasising greater competence as the reason for rewards, learners could indeed be more motivated to learn. Eggen Kauchak, 2007) Hence, it might be best to acknowledge that while rewards and punishments may not necessarily be the most effective way to motivate learners, it would not be ideal to eradicate them from teaching strategies too. Thus, the emphasis should be on appropriate implementation of rewards and punishments so as to motivate learning. c) There are many different strategies that can or should not be in place to facilitate the motivation of learners and they fall under different approaches: cognitive, humanistic and behaviourism. One critical cognitive theory known as the Expectancy ? Value theory suggests that learners feel encouraged to participate in a task only to the point where they believe they will succeed multiplied by the importance they feel this particular success is worth. The Expectancy ? Value theory has two influencing variables: expectancy for success and task value. To help learners be more confident about their chances of success, we can try to change their opinion of the challenge a particular task poses as well as their preconceptions of their own abilities. This can be done by nurturing expectations of success by providing just enough assistance for learners to make headway on challenges. Also, we can enhance the taskÃ¢â¬â¢s value by increasing intrinsic interest, the tasks importance and utility value. To achieve this, tasks will have to be linked to real-world situations and appeal to learners in terms of its usefulness and novelty. A simple way of achieving this would be to make use of Ã¢â¬Ëconcrete examplesÃ¢â¬â¢ to raise enthusiasm and stress the specific usefulness of the task. (Eggen Kauchak, 2007) What should not be done, then, in the terms of cognitive theories? According to Eggen and Kauchak, there is another influencing variable that influences learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of a taskÃ¢â¬â¢s value: cost. It is defined as the Ã¢â¬Ënegative aspect of engaging in a taskÃ¢â¬â¢. There can be emotional and psychological costs that hinder learners performing according to their true abilities (Eggen Kauchak, 2007) and it is up to the teacher to be aware of the situation and help to the best of her abilities. Metacognition, the Ã¢â¬Ëability to think about thinking, to play with thoughts and to monitor and deploy mental effort strategicallyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Forsyth, Forsyth, Schickedanz, Shickedanz, 2001), is almost like multi-tasking; learners have to juggle many different kinds of thought processes. It is crucial in the all-round development of learners and the presence of emotional or psychological costs in their learning environment can have an adverse impact on their motivation to learn. Thus, it is vital that teachers do not ignore the presence of these factors. The humanistic view of motivation has to do with our desire to achieve maximum potential as humans. (Eggen Kauchak, 2007) We look to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs to help explain motivation from a humanistic viewpoint. Maslow believed that basic needs lower down the pyramid have to be fulfilled before needs higher up the pyramid can be fulfilled. (Hierarchy of needs, 2007) What this means is that teachers have to create a positive and secure learning environment to satisfy learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ basic and growth needs. By treating everyone in the same positive manner by focusing on their Ã¢â¬Ëintrinsic worthÃ¢â¬â¢ and viewing them as Ã¢â¬Ëdeveloping human beingsÃ¢â¬â¢, one can be assured that learners will find the motivation to learn. However, critics of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory argue that insufficient research has been conducted to support these claims and that his hierarchy of needs does not always hold true as individuals can achieve higher needs, like aesthetic appreciation, without fulfilling their basic needs. With disability becoming an Ã¢â¬Ëemerging priorityÃ¢â¬â¢ in Singapore, there is an even greater need to Ã¢â¬Ësucceed in valuing and practising a cohesive spiritÃ¢â¬â¢ so as to Ã¢â¬Ëmeet future challengesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Lim, Thaver, Slee, 2008); which is why it is vital for teachers to Ã¢â¬Ëtreat students as people first and learners secondÃ¢â¬â¢. Eggen Kauchak, 2007) By striving to create an inclusive classroom, it will be easier motivating learners. Finally, we come to behavioural views of motivation. Earlier in the essay, rewards and punishments were said to be behavioural methods. This can be done in a learning-focused environment, which Ã¢â¬Ëemphasizes effort, continuous improvement and u nderstandingÃ¢â¬â¢. To do that, we can help learners to self-regulate their behaviour and structure the learning environment using climactic and instructional factors. When self-regulation takes place, learners will take more pride in their work and be more committed to the goals they set. Teachers can aid the process by modelling responsibility and help learners set guidelines in place. Climactic variables like encouraging success and handling challenges also play a key role in creating a motivating environment. By providing sufficient help in challenging tasks and highlighting the reasons for assignments, the learning environment will be better suited for motivation to learn. Instructional variables are key to capturing learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest, which determines how much effort they place on the task in turn. Involving students in personalized tasks and providing detailed feedback helps to build their intrinsic motivation to learn and succeed. (Eggen Kauchak, 2007) In any classroom, there will always be distractions that threaten to impair any carefully-laid lesson plans. Thus, learners should not be left out of the drawing up of classroom rules and expectations; they would then be familiar with any signals from the teacher indicating a disturbance or lack of attention. Also, not every interruption needs to be addressed immediately; by ignoring minor disruptions occasionally, it serves as a subtle cue for the offender to not resort to similar tactics to gain attention. (Divaharan Wong, 2008) Teachers should not get into the habit of jumping into a new topic immediately too, as a novel introductory focus (an appealing and scaffolded structure of the lesson) will appeal to learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest and prior knowledge, thus motivating them intrinsically.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Love in OthelloÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic drama Othello, love comes in many colors. Consider OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s love of Iago; the ancientÃ¢â¬â¢s so-called love for Emilia; DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s spotless love for the general; BiancaÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Michael Cassio; BrabantioÃ¢â¬â¢s love for his daughter. This essay will explore the various types of love as portrayed in this tragedy. Ã Initially the play presents a very distorted type of love. Act 1 Scene 1 shows Roderigo, generous in his gifts to the ancient, questioning IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s love for the former, whose concern has been the wooing of Desdemona. Roderigo construes IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s love for him as based on the ancientÃ¢â¬â¢s hatred for the Moor. Thus the wealthy suitor says accusingly, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou told'st me thou didst hold him in thy hate.Ã¢â¬ And Iago responds, Ã¢â¬Å"Despise me, if I do not.Ã¢â¬ Partly out of hatred for the general and partly out of proving his faithfulness to RoderigoÃ¢â¬â¢s cause, Iago asserts in detail the reasons for his hatred of Othello, who has given the lieutenancy to Michael Cassio, a Florentine. Secondly, Iago suggests that Roderigo and he awake and disturb Brabantio, the father of Desdemona: Ã Call up her father, Ã Ã Ã Ã Rouse him: make after him, poison his delight, Ã Ã Ã Ã Proclaim him in the streets; incense her kinsmen, Ã Ã Ã Ã And, though he in a fertile climate dwell, Ã Ã Ã Ã Plague him with flies: though that his joy be joy, Ã Ã Ã Ã Yet throw such changes of vexation on't, Ã Ã Ã Ã As it may lose some colour. (1.1) Ã Thus a hue and cry is raised in front of the senatorÃ¢â¬â¢s residence Ã¢â¬â partly for the sake of Iago proving his love for Roderigo so that the financial rewards will continue coming to the soldier. Once the senator has been awakened, Iago makes a series of loud... ...Ã Ã Ã Ã They do not point on me. (5.2) Ã The Moor straightway suffocates his innocent wife. Shortly, Emilia comes upon the scene, and Desdemona revives just enough to tell her friend that she dies a guiltless death. Her final words are ones of kindness for Othello, Ã¢â¬Å"Commend me to my kind lord: O, farewell!Ã¢â¬ Emilia exonerates Desdemona and accuses Iago of causing the murder. She actually gives her life for her lady since Iago stabs her to death for revealing the truth. Othello, grief-stricken by remorse for the tragic mistake he has made, stabs himself and dies on the bed next to his wife, his sorrow being as deep as his love for Desdemona prior to IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s machinations. Ã WORKS CITED Ã Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http://www.eiu.edu/~multilit/studyabroad/othello/othello_all.html No line nos.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Writing a MBA statement of purpose requires you to really think about yourself and your goals. It helps you to see why you want to enter a MBA program and assures you that you are making the right move. More importantly, it shows your chosen university that same thing. In order to ensure that you really get your point across and that you tell the school what they want to know, it helps to learn a bit more about what colleges look for in a MBA statement of purpose.You can look at multiple Sample MBA Statement of Purpose essays, but unless you get an actual Sample MBA Statement of Purpose essay form the school to which you are applying you may not hit the nail on the head. You may cover what they want to hear and you may not give them all the details they need to approve your application for admissions. A good Sample MBA Statement of Purpose will show you what the college wants and give you a great guide for writing your own. In general, colleges want to see the same types of things fr om a purpose statement.The bottom line is that they all want to see what the statement says about you. They want to learn who you are and why you should be in their program. Understanding this and looking at your essay from their point of view will help you to write the best possible statement. Put yourself in the role of an admission's officer. Consider the fact that you are reading thousands of these essays. Think about what you would like to see. Think about how your essay would appeal to someone who is reading these purpose statements everyday. Does it stand out? Is there anything unique about it or about you that will make them take notice?The admission's officers already know about your great test scores and where you got your undergraduate degree. Do not waste their time telling them abut things they already know. Mix in some interesting things that will catch their attention. Give them something they will want to read. You have to understand that you are not the only applyin g and you essay is not the only one they will read. You have to find a way to make yourself stand out and prove you are different from the rest. You can assume that everyone who is applying has good test scores and good work experience, so you have to go beyond that.You can not rely on your academics to get you by and that is the whole point of this purpose statement. When you sit down to write your statement of purpose you need to keep all of these things in mind. Your purpose statement gives life to your admissions application. It is the one thing that you control completely and the one thing that will show your personality. Do not let the chance go to show who you are by writing a dry statement if purpose. Write something that will make the admission's officers say they need you at their school
Sunday, January 5, 2020
French negation can be tricky. Normally, to make a statement negative you need to surround the conjugated verb with the formal French negative adverbÃ ne...pas. However, if youve ever watched French movies or television, or chatted with native speakers, you have almost certainly heard pas (or another negative adverb) used without ne, because this is a typical construction, characteristic of informal and familiar French. AlthoughÃ the full expressÃ (ne...pas)Ã is nearly always written out, the neÃ is often dropped in spoken French. ButÃ you should be able to construct a sentence, in most cases, using the full ne...pasÃ that means the same thing.Ã PasÃ withoutÃ ne can be used to negate adjectives, adverbs, nouns, pronouns, and verbs.Ã Purists will tell you that using pas without neÃ is wrong (and they tell me I shouldnt teach it), but the reality is that this is how the French speak now.Ã So if your goal is to sound more French, thats how you should speak, too. Informal Negative Statements Without Ne Je ne sais pas. Je sais pas.Ã Or even:Ã Jsais pas,Ã Sais pas,Ã andÃ Chais pas (pronouncedÃ Shai pah). (I dont know.)Ã Il ne va pas venir. Il va pas venir. (He isnt going to come.)Elle nest pas encore arrivÃ ©e. Elle est pas encore arrivÃ ©e. (She hasnt arrived yet.)Ne bouge pasÃ ! Bouge pasÃ ! (Dont move!)Il ne faut pas faire Ã §aÃ ! Il faut pas faire Ã §a. (You shouldnt do that!Note: Its not justÃ ne...pasÃ constructions where speakers drop the ne; they do as well with all the other negative structures.Je nai plus dargent Jai plus dargent. (I dont have any more money.)Nous ne le voyons jamais Nous le voyons jamais. (We never see him.)Je nai aucune idÃ ©e Jai aucune idÃ ©e. (I have no idea.)Je nen sais rien Jen sais rien. (I dont know anything about it.)
Saturday, December 28, 2019
The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini), also known as the North Pacific giant octopus, is the largest and longest-lived octopus in the world. As its common name suggests, this large cephalopod lives along coastlines of the North Pacific Ocean. Fast Facts: Giant Pacific Octopus Scientific Name: Enteroctopus dofleiniOther Name: North Pacific giant octopusDistinguishing Features: Reddish-brown octopus with large head, mantle, and eight arms, usually identified by its large sizeAverage Size: 15 kg (33 lb) with arm span of 4.3 m (14 ft)Diet: CarnivorousAverage Lifespan: 3 to 5 yearsHabitat: Coastal North PacificConservation Status: Not evaluatedKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: MolluscaClass: CephalopodaOrder: OctopodaFamily: EnteroctopodidaeFun Fact: Despite its large size, it can escape any container with an opening large enough for its beak. Description Like other octopuses, the giant Pacific octopus exhibits bilateral symmetry and has a bulbous head, eight sucker-covered arms, and a mantle. Its beak and radula are at the center of the mantle. This octopus is generally reddish-brown, but special pigment cells in its skin change texture and color to camouflage the animal against rocks, plants, and coral. Like other octopuses, the giant Pacific octopus has blue, copper-rich blood that helps it obtain oxygen in cold water. The giant Pacific octopus is a master of disguise. Can you see it against the coral?. Andrey Nekrasov / Getty Images For an adult-age giant Pacific octopus, the average weight is 15 kg (33 lb) and the average arm span is 4.3 m (14 ft). Guinness World Records lists the largest specimen as weighing 136 kg (300 lb) with an arm span of 9.8 m (32 ft). Despite its large size, the octopus can compress its body to fit through any opening larger than its beak. The octopus is the most intelligent invertebrate. They have been known to play with toys, interact with a handler, open jars, use tools, and solve puzzles. In captivity, they can distinguish between and recognize different keepers. Distribution The giant Pacific octopus lives in the Pacific Ocean off the coasts of Russia, Japan, Korea, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California. It prefers cool, oxygenated water, adjusting its depth from the surface down to 2000 m (6600 ft) as required. E. dolphleini distribution. Kat OBrien Diet Octopuses are carnivorous predators that usually hunt at night. The giant Pacific octopus appears to feed on any animal within its size range, including fish, crabs, clams, small sharks, other octopuses, and even seabirds. The octopus grabs and restrains prey using its tentacles and suckers, then bites it and tears away flesh with its tough beak. Predators Adult and juvenile giant Pacific octopuses are preyed upon by sea otters, harbor seals, sharks, and sperm whales. The eggs and paralarvae support zooplankton filter feeders, such as baleen whales, some species of sharks, and many species of fish. The giant Pacific octopus is an important protein source for human consumption. It is also used as bait for Pacific halibut and other fish species. About 3.3 million tons of giant octopus are fished annually. Reproduction The giant Pacific octopus is the longest-lived octopus species, usually living 3 to 5 years in the wild. During this time, it leads a solitary existence, breeding only one time. During mating, the male octopus inserts a specialized arm called a hectocotylus into the females mantle, depositing a spermatophore. The female can store the spermatophore for several months before fertilization. After mating, the males physical condition deteriorates. He stops eating and spends more time in open water. Males typically die of being preyed upon, rather than starving to death. Giant Pacific octopus with her eggs. FriedC After mating, the female stops hunting. She lays between 120,000 and 400,000 eggs. She attaches the eggs to a hard surface, blows fresh water over them, cleans them, and chases away predators. Depending on water temperature, the eggs hatch in about six months. Females die soon after the eggs hatch. Each hatchling is about the size of a grain of rice, but grows at the rate of about 0.9% per day. Although many eggs are laid and hatch, most hatchlings are eaten before they reach adulthood. Conservation Status The giant Pacific octopus has not been evaluated for the IUCN Red List, nor is it protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. This is because its too hard to find and track the animals to assess its numbers. While not endangered, the species is likely threatened by pollution and climate change. Usually, the octopus flees warm water and dead zones in favor of cooler, oxygenated water, but some populations may be trapped between low-oxygen zones. Yet, the species can adapt to live in deep water, so it may be possible for the giant Pacific octopus to find a new habitat. Sources Cosgrove, James (2009). Super Suckers, The Giant Pacific octopus. BC: Harbour Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55017-466-3.Mather, J.A.; Kuba, M.J. (2013). The cephalopod specialties: complex nervous system, learning and cognition. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 91 (6): 431Ã¢â¬â449. doi:10.1139/cjz-2013-0009